Ice cream stabilizer. The function of an ice cream stabilizer as commonly used is to prevent the separation or uneven distribution of fats and others solids to prevent the growth of large, grainy ice crystals, and to impart proper body, Smoothness, uniformity, and other desirable features. At one time or another, almost every hydrophilic gum has been used for this purpose, and even today many different gums and mixtures of gums are used for this application. Although none of the present day ice cream stabilizers is completely satisfactory in every respect, carrageenan has proved to be one of the better stabilizers when used in combination with other gums.
Carrageenan by itself is not a satisfactory stabilizing material for ice cream, because it greatly increases the mix viscosity, making difficult or impossible the introduction of sufficiently large quantities for adequate stabilization (werbin. 1953 a,b). But it is extremely useful as a secondary stabilizer when used with primary stabilizers such as locust bean gums, guar, carboxymethylcellulose or combinations of these.
The primary stabilizers in many ice cream mixes are locust bean gum or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (moss, 1955, Sperry, 1955), each of which has excellent water-holding properties. However, each has the unfortunate tendency of causing whey separation in the mix. This “wheying-off” tendency can be eliminated or reduced by including a balancing colloid such as carrageenan at reduced concentrations. A great many of the commercial ice cream stabilizers are therefore tailored blends of locust bean gum-carrageenan or carrageenan-carrageenan. In some instances, guar gum has been used with carrageenan (werbin,1950a,b) The utilization of carrageenan in this application has been reported many times in the literature. Werbin(1950a) used a1:5.5 mixture of carrageenan and guar gum, which Julien (1953) also found very satisfactory, Blihovde (1952) preferred a blends of carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose in a ratio of 1 to 1-12 parts. None of these, however, meets all the requirements of an ideal ice cream stabilizer, i.e. one that will perform satisfactorily in all types of ice cream mixes under all sorts of processing conditions.
Some other applications of carrageenan ion ice cream manufacture have been reported. Steintz (1958) improved the dispersing and handing properties of ice cream stabilizers containing carrageenan by suspending the gums in liquids such as propylene glycol, glycerin, lecithin, and glyceryl monostearate. The stabilization of frozen fruits, such as strawberries, for inclusion in ice cream can also be accomplished by pretreating the berries with carrageenan.