Sterculia or Karaya or Thapsi tree
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is a native of dry deciduous forests of dry rocky hills lands having tropical climate. Gum Karaya is an exudate of gum obtained from the trees of Sterculia Urens one of the most important forest products of our country.
In India, the species of sterculia are found in tropical Himalayas, west and central India, throughout eastern and western ghats. In Andhra Pradesh, Gum Karaya trees are found in Adilabad, Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar, Mahabubnagar, Kurnool, Vishakhapatnam, East/West Godavari and Chittoor districts. Gum Karaya trees are also found in Australia, Pakistan, Panama, Phillippines, Indonesia, Senegal, Sudan and Vietnam.1) Botanical Characters:
Distinguishing features of the Genus Sterculia are:
2) Trade Name:
- Leaves alternate, Stipulate, hairy. Flowers unisexual and polygamous, petals absent, anthers 10 and more, fruit follicle.
- Bark - White, papery
- Flowering - December, February
- Flowers - Unisexual to Bisexual
- Calyx - Companulate
- Seeds - Oblong / Dark brown
Gum Karaya3) Common Names:
Gum Karaya, Thapsi Gum, Gum Kadaya, Kullo, Karei, Kandol, Katilo, Gulu, Katera, Katiera, Indian Tregacanth.
In Andhra Pradesh in different regions Gum Karaya is called under different names.
1) Telangana - Tapsi, Tabsigum
2) Rayalaseema - Yerra poliki, Tella poliki
3) Coastal Andhra
a) Vishakapatnam, East and West Godavari - Kovela
b) Vizianagaram and Srikakulum - Konda tamara
: Through out the year. Best season to collect quality material is January to June.5) Production:
Annual World Production is estimated at 5500 Tons, while India’s
share is around 3000 - 3500 tons. Senegal, Sudan and Pakistan are emerging as other important suppliers.6) Producing States:
1) Andhra Pradesh
Though MP has abundant potentiality of gum,its tapping is banned since 1981; however in Bastar abd Sirguja districts it is
Once its annual potential was around 5000 mts. but its present potential is estimated around 3000 tones per annum.